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Medieval cities of Semirechye

In the territory of Semirechye there are ruins of several tens ancient settlements. Names of many are lost. However some of names remained. It, first of all, the cities in the Southern Kazakhstan and in the western part of Semirechya. So, for example, ruins in the modern settlement Merke are the remains of the medieval city Worlds; near the village of Kulan the remains of the ancient city with the name of the same name remained.

Some names are restored by comparison of medieval toponyms and descriptions of travelers. So, researcher of medieval city culture Baypakov K.M. considers that medieval Kayalyk — the modern settlement of Koylyk, the former village of Antonovka was the capital of East Semirechya. In this settlement ruins of the largest city in Semirechye about whom G. Rubruk mentions in the description of travel to a rate of the Mongolian khans remained.

Medieval cities of Semirechye

Names of some cities manage to be restored with a smaller share of probability. And if comparison of medieval ruins at page. A snow-storm with the capital Western the city of Balasagun Semirechya is represented rather convincing, the identification of the cities of the Iliysky valley is more approximate. It is explained by absence of the description a sneeze of the cities in medieval sources and weak study their archeologists. The majority of the cities resulted from development of a yurgovla on the Silk way to the Middle Ages. Many of them grew up from small settlements.

Ruins of the cities represent hillocks from 5 to 10 meters high, the sizes from 70 x 70 meters to several kilometers presently, but to perimeter.

On the planning of the city of Western Semirechya differ from yurod of East Semirechya. In the Chuya valley the largest of them, such as Snow-storm, Krasnorechenskoye, Shortobe have accurately struck parts: citadel (lock of the feudal lord), Shakhristan (actually city) and Rabat (suburb).

On ancient settlements of East Semirechya citadels aren’t present, by the sizes they it is much less. The most part from them has a rectangular breading. Ancient settlements remained in the form of the become swollen shaft with hillocks — in peaks of towers. The sizes of their 100 x 150 m, 300 x 400 m Besides, honor a small occupation layer that testifies that in their territory lived on all cities of the Iliysky valley and built less. The exception makes the large ancient settlement Koylyk occupying the big space.

The cities in Semirechye started building with the VIII century, but the majority of them arose with X on the XIII a century. Many of them were the large craft centers. The population was engaged in agriculture, cattle breeding, and trade.

Other direction is traced not only on ancient settlements, but also according to descriptions of medieval travelers, scientists. The way lay through the Iliysky valley to the cities of Dzungaria. Behind the Lake Alakol it left out of borders of Kazakhstan.

What represented the medieval city?

On this question it is possible to receive the answer, having got acquainted with results of excavation on the ancient settlement Talgar.

Medieval cities of Semirechye

The rectangular city in the plan was surrounded with cob walls. On its perimeter and on corners towers settled down. The distance between towers was small: 25 — 30 m. The central part of the city from the West to the east was crossed by the pavement removing to the western and east gate. It was put from rounded stones and atop filled up with beaten ceramics, slag and pieces of iron ore. Availability of slags and pieces of ore in a large number allows drawing a conclusion on smelting of iron to the ancient settlement. In the territory of the city, some residential quarters were dug out. Craft workshops on metal processing are revealed, bakery, the city crossed the water supply system made of the ceramic pipes inserted one into another.

Outside a city wall there was a suburb. On the southern suburb, on the riverbank Talgar, the estates consisting of houses with economic extensions and the yards are dug out. In the yards the bases of yurtas remained here and there. As researchers assume, in summertime the population lived in yurtas.

The city during the last period underwent reorganization — entrances at the western and east gate were built up with premises, and their bases put from large boulders blocked a pavement and partly gate. Perhaps, it was connected with need to strengthen the city in the period of the arisen danger. The found skeletons in an aperture between two dwellings at the western gate with traces of the cutting blows on one of skulls and three big bronze lamps lying on a floor in one of the houses blocking a pavement testify to it. Probably, the city was taken by storm, and the population didn’t manage to hide.

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